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Research Article |

Early Diagnosis of Pneumonia from Chest X-Rays Using a Capsule Network Model: Enhancing Accuracy and Efficiency in Automated Image Classification

Pneumonia is a significant public health concern worldwide, causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Early, accurate diagnosis is vital in ensuring timely treatment and improving patient outcomes. Chest X-ray analysis is the standard procedure used most frequently to diagnose pneumonia, but the accurate and timely interpretation of these images can be complex and time consuming. This research aimed to develop a capsule network (CapsNet) model for image classification, based on the Capsule network model introduced by Sabour and his colleagues in 2017 enabling automated chest X-ray analysis for early detection of pneumonia. Pneumonia impacts diverse populations, with vulnerable groups such as the elderly, young children and immunocompromised individuals at heightened risk. Delayed or missed diagnoses can lead to severe complications and increased healthcare costs. The reliance on human expertise for chest X-ray interpretation introduces the potential or errors, therefore there is a dire need to develop automated and precise diagnostic models and tools which are crucial for facilitating timely interventions. In this study secondary data obtained from Mendeley data was comprehensively pre-processed thoroughly by applying image resizing, standardization and normalization for consistent image quality, followed by a gaussian blur for noise reduction, and histogram equalization for contrast enhancement. The enhanced dataset enabled the main features of the pneumonia-infected images to be captured effectively during model training. The dataset was split into sets for training, testing and validation in an 80%, 10% and 10% ratio. The training set was used to train the CapsNet model which demonstrated a commendable performance with a 96% accuracy, a precision of 96.97% and a recall of 97.42%. The Capsule Network model shows a significant promise as a tool for improving the efficiency and accuracy of pneumonia diagnosis, thus befitting patients and healthcare providers.

Pneumonia, Capsnet, X-Ray, Occlusions, Topography, Deep Learning, Artificial Intelligence

APA Style

Maureen, M. K., Mageto, T., Wanjoya, A. (2023). Early Diagnosis of Pneumonia from Chest X-Rays Using a Capsule Network Model: Enhancing Accuracy and Efficiency in Automated Image Classification. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 12(6), 161-173.

ACS Style

Maureen, M. K.; Mageto, T.; Wanjoya, A. Early Diagnosis of Pneumonia from Chest X-Rays Using a Capsule Network Model: Enhancing Accuracy and Efficiency in Automated Image Classification. Am. J. Theor. Appl. Stat. 2023, 12(6), 161-173. doi: 10.11648/j.ajtas.20231206.12

AMA Style

Maureen MK, Mageto T, Wanjoya A. Early Diagnosis of Pneumonia from Chest X-Rays Using a Capsule Network Model: Enhancing Accuracy and Efficiency in Automated Image Classification. Am J Theor Appl Stat. 2023;12(6):161-173. doi: 10.11648/j.ajtas.20231206.12

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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